Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

Income Taxes
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes
Income Taxes
In 2017, the Company became the sole managing member of Rosehill Operating, the Company’s accounting predecessor. Rosehill Operating is a limited liability company that is treated as a partnership for U.S. federal income tax purposes and is not subject to U.S. federal income tax. Any taxable income or loss generated by Rosehill Operating is passed through to and included in the taxable income or loss of its members, including the Company. The Company is a C corporation and is subject to U.S. federal income tax and state and local income taxes.

On December 22, 2017, the U.S. government enacted comprehensive tax legislation through Public Law No. 115-97, commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Tax Act”). The provisions of the Tax Act that impact the Company include, but are not limited to, (1) reducing the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 21%; (2) eliminating the corporate alternative minimum tax (“AMT”); (3) allowing businesses to immediately expense the cost of new investments in certain qualified depreciable assets acquired after September 27, 2017 (with a phase-down of such expensing starting in 2023), (4) reducing the maximum deduction for net operating loss (“NOL”) carryforwards generated in tax years beginning after December 31, 2017, to 80% of a taxpayer’s taxable income and (5) imposing additional limits on future deductibility of interest expense and certain executive compensation.

The Company remeasured its deferred tax assets and liabilities at December 31, 2017 using the lower 21% rate, resulting in a decrease in net deferred tax assets and its valuation allowance. Aside from the reduction to the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate, the Tax Act is not expected to have a significant current impact to the Company. The ultimate impact of the Tax Act may differ from the Company’s estimates due to changes in interpretations or assumptions, as well as additional regulatory guidance that may be issued. The Company has not made any further adjustments to its deferred tax assets and liabilities since recording the effects of the tax rate change during the year ended December 31, 2017.

The Company’s income tax provision was an expense of $22.9 million and a benefit of $0.9 million for the three months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively, and an expense of $5.5 million and a benefit of $0.7 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively. The Company’s effective tax rate was 37% and 7% for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018, respectively. The effective tax rate differs from the enacted statutory rate of 21% for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 primarily due to the allocation of profits and losses to Rosehill and the noncontrolling interest holder in accordance with the LLC Agreement, and the impact of state income taxes.

As of September 30, 2018, the Company had approximately $33.4 million of U.S. federal net operating loss carryovers, which will begin to expire in 2035. The Company periodically assesses whether it is more likely than not that it will generate sufficient taxable income to realize its deferred tax assets, including NOL carry forwards. A valuation allowance for deferred tax assets is recognized when it is more likely than not that some or all of the benefit from the deferred tax asset will not be realized. As of September 30, 2018, we have a valuation allowance of $2.9 million. In making this determination, the Company considers all available positive and negative evidence and makes certain assumptions. The Company considers, among other things, its deferred tax liabilities, the overall business environment, its historical earnings and losses, current industry trends, and its outlook for future years.

Upon closing the Transaction, the Company acquired a portion of the Rosehill Operating Common Units, and a deferred tax asset was recorded relating to the outside basis difference of its investment in Rosehill Operating for $5.7 million with an offsetting effect recorded in additional paid in capital. Due to uncertainties relating to the realization of the deferred tax asset, the Company recorded a full valuation allowance with an offsetting effect recorded in additional paid in capital. During the year ended December 31, 2017, the subsequent recognition of tax benefits resulted in a partial reduction of the valuation allowance of $1.5 million, with an offsetting effect recorded in additional paid in capital. Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended (“IRC”), addresses company ownership changes and specifically limits the utilization of tax benefits generated prior to the Transaction following an ownership change. Upon closing of the Transaction, the Company believes it experienced an ownership change within the meaning of IRC Section 382 and recorded a valuation allowance of $0.2 million and an offsetting effect in additional paid in capital to fully offset these tax benefits.

The Company is subject to the following material taxing jurisdictions: the United States, Texas and New Mexico. As of September 30, 2018, the Company has no current tax years under audit. The Company remains subject to examination for federal income taxes and state income taxes for tax years 2015 through 2017.

The Company has evaluated all tax positions for which the statute of limitations remains open and believes that the material positions taken would more likely than not be sustained upon examination. Therefore, as of September 30, 2018, the Company had not established any reserves for, nor recorded any unrecognized benefits related to, uncertain tax positions. The Company’s policy is to recognize interest and penalties related to uncertain tax positions in income tax expense.

Tax Receivable Agreement

In connection with the Transaction, the Company entered into a tax receivable agreement (“Tax Receivable Agreement”) with the noncontrolling interest holder, Tema. The Tax Receivable Agreement provides that the Company will pay to Tema 90% of the net cash savings, if any, in U.S. federal, state and local income tax that the Company realizes (or is deemed to realize in certain circumstances) in periods beginning with and after the closing of the Transaction as a result of the following: (i) any tax basis increases in the assets of Rosehill Operating resulting from the distribution to Tema of the Cash Consideration, the shares of Class B Common Stock and the Tema warrants, all in connection with the Transaction, and resulting from the assumption of Tema liabilities in connection with the Transaction, (ii) the tax basis increases in the assets of Rosehill Operating resulting from a redemption by Rosehill Operating with respect to Tema and (iii) imputed interest deemed to be paid by the Company as a result of, and additional tax basis arising from, payments it makes under the Tax Receivable Agreement.

The estimation of liability under the Tax Receivable Agreement is by its nature imprecise and subject to significant assumptions regarding the amount and timing of future taxable income. As of September 30, 2018, the Company’s preliminary estimate of the Tax Receivable Agreement liability resulting from the distribution of the Cash Consideration to Tema in connection with the Transaction was approximately $50.4 million. However, the Company has not been able to determine that future payments under the Tax Receivable Agreement are likely to occur and therefore has concluded that no recognizable Tax Receivable Agreement liability has been incurred. To the extent the Company realizes tax benefits in future years, or in the event of a change in future tax rates, this liability may change. The Company does not anticipate it will realize cash savings on its 2018 tax return as a result of tax attributes arising from the Transaction, however, it may record a liability in future periods if a payment under the Tax Receivable Agreement is anticipated for the 2018 tax year.

The Tax Receivable Agreement liability is recorded based upon projected tax savings, and the actual amount and timing of payments will depend upon a number of factors, including the amount and timing of taxable income generated in the future, changes in future tax rates, the use of loss carryovers, and the portion of the Company’s payments constituting imputed interest. If and when Tema exercises its right to cause the Company to redeem all or a portion of its Rosehill Operating Common Units, a liability under the Tax Receivable Agreement relating to such redemption will be recorded. The amount of liability will be based on 90% of the estimated future cash tax savings that the Company will realize as a result of increases in the basis of Rosehill Operating’s assets attributed to the Company resulting from such redemption. The amount of the increase in asset basis, the related estimated cash tax savings and the attendant Tax Receivable Agreement liability will depend, in part, on the price of the Class A Common Stock at the time of the relevant redemption. Due to the uncertainty surrounding the amount and timing of future redemptions of Rosehill Operating Common Units by Tema, the Company does not believe it is appropriate to record additional Tax Receivable Agreement liability until such time that Rosehill Operating Common Units are redeemed for shares of Class A Common Stock or cash.